Analyse and synthesis of the existing data

National research Estonia


Children of Screen and Monitor

Epp LAUK, Children of Screen and Monitor. Estonian Schoolchildren in the New Media Environment, Nordicom Reviews, vol. 25 no 1-2, sept. 2004.

This article is based on two surveys carried out among Estonian schoolchildren. One is 'Tiger under the Magnifying Glass' (winter 2000, see below). The other was carried out by the Department of Journalism and Communication of Tartu University (winter 2001), and its target was children in the age range 12-19. Due to the large availability of computers and Internet connections in schools, the paper does not dwell too much on this aspect, nor on ICT competence of children, but concentrates rather on ownership of ICT devices by schoolchildren, intensity of media use and the purposes of use of computers and the Internet. Attention is given to the influence of ethnic origin: Estonian or Russian. In conclusion, the author remarks that media literacy has developed far less than technical skills and that children lack the ability to critically analyze media content. On the other hand, due to the low average income level of Estonian families, children are as yet immune to such dangers as on-line shopping.

Mobile Phones, Computers, Internet: Estonia on the Edge of the Information Society


Pille RUNNEL, Pille PRUULMANN-VENGERFELDT, Mobile Phones, Computers, Internets : Estonia on the Edge of Information Society, in KALMUS, V., LAURISTIN, M. & PRUULMANN-VENGERFELDT, P (eds.), Estonian Life World in the Beginning of 21.st Century : Survey of Results of Census “Me. The World. The Media”. Tartu University Press, 2004.

The article (in Estonian) belongs to a collection of studies centered around the census 'Me. The World. The Media', which was carried out in Estonia in 2002. Although the target (1470 persons) covers all the different ages, the results are sufficiently detailed to permit extraction of data concerning those between 15-19. The specific questions which the paper addresses are frequency of computer use, reasons for not having a computer at home, what people use computers for, auto-evaluation of technical skills, services sought when using the Internet, preferred means of exchanging opinions and communicating with other people, warnings against Internet-related dangers. The conclusion does not state any specific result about children.

Will the girls catch up ?: Trends in gender-based digital inequality in Estonia


Veronika KALMUS, Will the girls catch up ?: Trends in gender-based digital inequality in Estonia, “Internet Research 5.0 : Ubiquity ?”, International and Interdisciplinary Conference of the Association of Internet Researchers at the University of Sussex, England, 19th-22nd September 2004.

This paper is based on three surveys, two of which were targeted towards schoolchildren (one in September 2000, the second in November 2001 and October 2002). The third survey is the census 'Me. The World. The Media' (see above). The various aspects analyzed are home access to the Internet, frequency of Internet use, computer skills and fear of using ICT. The surveys show boys enjoy an advantage in home access to the Internet, computer skills and fear of using ICT, and the gap has not diminished in the two and half years between the first survey and the last one. The author argues that 'such differences result from deep-rooted stereotypical social representations, which hinder the development of women's individual agency and contribute to the reproduction of gender-based digital and social inequality'.

Other research

The commercial survey firm TNS EMOR plans to conduct surveys about children and the Internet in 2005. The results will be released (available at cost) in June and December 2005. See the following Internet pages:

http://www.emor.ee/eng/

http://www.emor.ee/eng/index.html?id=585

http://www.emor.ee/eng/index.html?id=668

Some qualitative research about young people and new media will soon be published. These projects (using mainly ethnographic methods) will give more information about attitudes towards media and user types, as well about the role of computer-mediated communication in the lives of young people.

Bibliography

Kurm, Tarmu, Estonian school teachers' readiness to teach media as an integrated theme. Master thesis, university of Tartu, department of journalism and communication, 2004

Epp LAUK, Children of Screen and Monitor. Estonian Schoolchildren in the New Media Environment, Nordicom Reviews, vol. 25 no 1-2, sept. 2004.

Pille RUNNEL, Pille PRUULMANN-VENGERFELDT, Mobiilid, Arvutid, Internetid: Eesti infoühiskonna künnisel, in KALMUS, V., LAURISTIN, M. & PRUULMANN-VENGERFELDT, P. (toim.,), Eesti elavik 21. sajandi algul: ülevaade uurimuse 'Mina. Maailm. Meedia' tulemustest. Tartu Ülikooli Kirjastus, 2004.

Pille RUNNEL, Pille PRUULMANN-VENGERFELDT, Mobile Phones, Computers, Internet: Estonia on the Edge of the Information Society, in KALMUS, V., LAURISTIN, M. & PRUULMANN-VENGERFELDT, P (eds.), The Estonian Life and World at the Beginning of 21.st Century: Survey of Results of Census 'Me. The World. The Media'. Tartu University Press, 2004.

Veronika KALMUS, Will the girls catch up ?: Trends in gender-based digital inequality in Estonia, 'Internet Research 5.0: Ubiquity?', International and Interdisciplinary Conference of the Association of Internet Researchers at the University of Sussex, England, 19th-22nd September 2004.

http://www.tiigrihype.ee/eng/index.php, home page of Tiger Leap Foundation, in English, viewed Apr 2005

http://www.tiigrihype.ee/eng/publikatsioonid/tiigerluup_eng/tiigerluup_eng.html, results of Tiger in Focus, viewed in Apr 2005

http://www.tiigrihype.ee/eng/publikatsioonid/summary.pdf, results of Tiger in Focus,viewed in Apr 2005

http://www.emor.ee/eng/, home page of marketing research and consulting company

http://www.stat.ee/index.aw?set_lang_id=2, Statistical Office of Estonia, viewed Apr. 2005

 

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