Analyse and synthesis of the existing data

National research France


A/ The current situation

There are three research programmes that really interest us.

The first one is the research conducted by CLEMI in October 2003 : 'Young people and the Internet. Representations, uses and appropriation'.

Next is the Credoc research on 'The diffusion of technologies of information in French society : living conditions and aspirations'. This research first concerned people 18 years and older but then was enlarged to 12-17 year olds (their use of mobile phone, computers, Internet).

Finally, Dominique Pasquier, a sociologist, studied the culture of young people in schools, with a chapter on previous and new ways of communication. She asks if these new technologies have changed sociability.

The research was mostly commissioned for political reasons (Ministry of Education, Ministry of Family) or for some economic reason by, for instance, the mobile operators (the Observatory of France Telecom is researching new ways of communication among young people : a potentially huge market for them).

Finally, elements concerning the appropriation of media by young people are studied in the areas of sociology, communications, education sciences or child psychiatry (risks, behavior, ways of appropriation, etc).

B/ Resources

The research

The diffusion of information technologies in French society : living conditions and aspirations of French people- November 2003

Research by Régis Bigot, of Crédoc (Center of Research for the Study and Observation of Living Conditions) commissioned by the Ministry of the Economy and by the Authority for Telecommunication Regulation (ART).

http://www.art-telecom.fr/publications/etudes/index-etcredoc.htm

The investigation focused on people 18 years and older, and then was enlarged for the first time in 2003 to the 12-17 years group. The study deals with phone, computer, and Internet access equipment and their uses.

  • The new uses of mobile phones (to connect to the Internet, read mails, send SMS and MMS, voice services)
  • The new uses of the Internet (to watch video-clips, to network peer-to-peer, to chat, to play games online, to meet friends, to maintain relationships, to facilitate daily life, to shop on line, for amusement, for training)

Secondary School cultures, The tyranny of the majority Dominique Pasquier. Ed Autrement, 2005.

Chapter 3 : Organising sociability : old and new ways of communication

Research carried out in 2002 in three General and Technological secondary schools in Paris and its suburbs. 944 questionnaires were sent out in addition to 60 interviews.This study is not representative at the national level.

Dominique Pasquier shows that pupils find themselves under a frightening authority :
the tyranny of the majority, even if they are deliberated from the adult pressure.

The sociologist asks if the new communication practices have reordered sociability.

Concerning young people's use of the new communication tools, we note that the family is a big influence, and that usage varies between boys and girls. There are also some differences in chat practices depending on social level.

Young people and the Internet. Representations, uses and appropriations

CLEMI Evelyne Bevort, Isabelle Bréda, octobre 2001.

International research was carried out in France between November 1999 and May 2000 on 524 pupils from 11 to 19 years old. This study dealt with youth representations of the Internet (How do they consider the Internet, its future ?), and their uses of it (How do they use the Internet, where, what are they doing on the net ?)

The studies

Les jeunes et l'écran (Young people and the screen) research coordinated by Dominique Pasquier et Josiane Jouët, Réseaux, 1999.

This review deals with the issues raised in the French part of the renewed research of Himmelweit about young people and the screen.

L'Internet en famille (The Internet in the family) Réseaux n°123, 2004. Particularly concerning young people.

L'internet des 10-20 ans- Une ressource pour une communication autonome. (The Internet of 10-20 year olds - A resource for autonomous communication). Olivier Martin, France Télécom R&D.

Through a questionnaire study in 2002 with 468 people from 10 to 21 years old, the author tries to understand the meaning that young people give to their Internet uses. For the author, these uses depend on two things: the level of supervision by parents and their sociability. He identifies four profiles : the Internet as an extension of the outside world at home, as a window open on the world, as a collective benefit gathering all the family, or as a parental possession.

Les usages de l'Internet des collégiens- Explorer les mondes sociaux depuis le domicile. (Students' (11-15) uses of the Internet - Exploring social worlds from home). Cécile Metton, France Télécom R&D.

Research carried out through interviews of 24 persons from 11 to 15 years old. The author tries to find out how the Internet and mobile phones play a part in teenagers' socialisation process (autonomy and identity construction).

Les adolescents et les nouveaux outils de communication,
(Teenagers and the new communication tools).

Etude de Dominique Cardon et Céline Metton, Observatoire France Télécom.

The new communication tools, Internet and mobile phones, allow teenagers to better manage the tension between the desire for autonomy and their presence at home. Through interviews, this study aims at understanding teenagers' uses of these new communication tools.

The broader studies

Réseaux sociaux et pratiques de communication
(Social networks and communication practices)

Armelle Bergé, Dominique Cardon, Fabien Granjon, France Télécom R&D, 2004

http://www.liafa.jussieu.fr/~latapy/RSI/Transparents/cardon.pdf

Through 20 interviews of 18-25 year-olds the author studied the links between certain practices, cultural data and sociabilities.

Une communication sexuée ? (A sexed communication ?) Réseaux, 2003, n°120

The media and ICT are very important vehicles for the transmission of ideas, images, stereotypes, and beliefs. They are used differently for boys and for girls. The study gathers together a number of articles on the theme.

Age et usages des médias (Age and uses of media) Réseaux, 2003, n°119

The study is about young people but it only deals with radio and television.

100 fenêtre sur Internet (100 windows on the Internet)
ou l'analyse des facteurs qui facilitent ou freinent l'appropriation de l'Internet par des utilisateurs sans expérience préalable.

Coordonnée par Jean-François Rouet, Laboratoire Langage et Cognition (LaCo) de l'université de Poitiers, mars 2004

http://www.mshs.univ-poitiers.fr/laco/Pages_perso/Rouet/Textes.htm

A two years investigation on the ideas and uses of ICT in 100 homes in Poitiers.
The study shows that the Internet is never totally under control. The Internet adoption process is characterised by a first phase of discovery with long periods of connection, then a second phase with a decreased period of Internet use and finally an increase and a stabilisation of the connection.

Les usages dans les points d'accès publics à l'Internet
(Internet use in multimedia public spaces) - janvier 2003,

http://www.cyber-institut.org/epm/news/!enquete.htm

Investigation by questionnaires coordinated by the association ' RESO ' in 667 multimedia public spaces (January 2003). The results show three main roles for these public spaces : discovery of and initiation in the Internet, free access to the Internet and meetings and exchanges.

Reports

In recent months politicians have been concerned to finance reports about the Internet and specific sectors of the population (young people, old people or disabled people).

Les enfants du Net (Children of the Net)- I, (2003) - Forum des droits sur l'Internet.

About the exposure of minors to injurious content on the Internet.

Les enfants du Net (Children of the Net) - II, (2004) - Forum des droits sur l'Internet.

The first recommendation: 'to study minors use of and behaviour on the Internet',

http://www.forumInternet.org/telechargement/documents/recoenfance220050125.pdf (p.53)

Some other reports deal with :

Bibliography

BERGER A., CARDON D., GRANION F., Réseaux sociaux et pratiques de communication (Social networks and communication practices), France Télécom R&D, 2004.

BEVORT E., BREDA I., «Les jeunes et Internet. Représentations, usages et appropriations» (Young people and the Internet. Representations, uses and appropriations), CLEMI, octobre 2001.

BIGOT R., The diffusion of the information technologies in the French society: life conditions and aspirations of French people November 2003

CARDON D., METTON C., Les adolescents et les nouveaux outils de communication, (Teenagers and the new communication tools). Etude, Observatoire France Télécom.

FRYDEL Y., Un ménage sur deux possède un micro-ordinateur, un sur trois à accès à Internet. (1/2 of homes have a computer, 1/3 of homes have an Internet access), Insee, Division of life conditions, March 2005.

ftp://trf.education.gouv.fr/pub/edutel/dpd/noteeval/ne0304.pdf

GRESILLON G., KERDELLANT C., Les enfants puce : Comment Internet et les jeux vidéo fabriquent les adultes de demain. (Children of the Internet: how the Internet and video-games create the adults of tomorrow), Denoël, 2003.

http://www.art-telecom.fr/publications/etudes/index-etcredoc.htm


http://www.cyber-institut.org/epm/news/!enquete.htm


http://www.eurydice.org/Documents/KDICT/fr/FrameSet.htm


http://www.liafa.jussieu.fr/~latapy/RSI/Transparents/cardon.pdf


http://www.mshs.univ-poitiers.fr/laco/Pages_perso/Rouet/Textes.htm

JAUREGUIBERRY F., Les branchés du portable, Sociologie d'aujourd'hui PUF, 2004.

Le Journal du Net, Internet, média de plus en plus présent dans la vie des jeunes
(The Internet, an increasingly present media in the life of young people)

Le Journal du Net, 24/06/2003, «Internet, le média de référence des jeunes»
(Internet : the touchstone media of young people)

Le Journal du Net, 28/07/2003, «Internet et mobile : ne cherchez plus les nouvelles stars des jeunes», (The Internet and the mobile phone : don't search any more for young people's stars the new stars of young people)

MARTIN O., L'Internet des 10-20 ans - Une ressource pour une communication autonome, (The Internet of 10-20 year olds - A resource for autonomous communication), France Télécom R&D.

METTON C., Les usages de l'Internet des collégiens- Explorer les mondes sociaux depuis le domicile. (Pupils' (11-15) uses of Internet - Exploring social worlds at home), France Télécom R&D.

METTON C.,«Ils s'aiment par Interne» (They love each other via Internet).

Particularly concerning young people :

PASQUIER D., Etat des lieux des pratiques audiovisuelles. (Current situation of audiovisual practices).

PASQUIER D., JOUËT J., Les jeunes et l'écran (Young people and the screen) research coordinated by Dominique Pasquier et Josiane Jouët, Réseaux, 1999.

PASQUIER D., Secondary School cultures, The tyranny of the majority, Ed Autrement, 2005.

POUTS-LAJUS S., RICHE MAGNIER M., L'école à l'heure d'Internet, les enjeux du multimédia dans l'éducation. (The school in the Internet age, the multimedia challenge in education). Observatoire des technologies pour l'éducation en Europe, 1998.

Research of Régis Bigot, from the Crédoc (Center of Research for the Study and Observation of life conditions) commissioned by the Ministry of Economy and by the Authority for Telecommunication Regulation (ART).

ROUET J-F., 100 fenêtre sur Internet (100 windows on the Internet) ou l'analyse des facteurs qui facilitent ou freinent l'appropriation de l'Internet par des utilisateurs sans expérience préalable, Laboratoire Langage et Cognition (LaCo) de l'université de Poitiers, mars 2004.

Age et usages des médias (Age and uses of media) Réseaux n°119, 2003.

Baromètre annuel réalisé pour France Télécom par Démoscopie : La perception d'Internet à l'école par les enseignants, les documentalistes et les chefs d'établissements. (Teachers', librarians' and school directors' perceptions of the Internet at school).

Chiffres clés des technologies de l'information et de la communication à l'école en Europe. (Key figures of communication and information technologies at school in Europe). Eurydice, May 2004.

Emile European Project(2002) : Usages des technologies d'information et de communication (TIC) dans des établissements d'enseignement primaire et secondaire. (Communication and Information technology uses in primary and secondary schools).

Etat des lieux du marché français des jeux vidéo. (The situation of the French video games market), TNS-SOFRES, Décembre 2004.

Français et Internet , (The French people and the Internet), Septembre 2002- Juin 2003, Etude réalisée par Universal MacCan Connections (entitée dédiée à l'expertise entre les consommateurs, les marques et les médias).

L'audience de l'Internet en France, (The Internet audience in France), Janvier 2005, Médiamétrie.

L'enfant, le jeune et le monde audiovisuel, (Children, teenagers and the audiovisual world) Informations sociales n°111, Novembre 2003.

L'Internet en famille (The Internet in the family) Réseaux n°123, 2004.

Le cap des 20 millions d'Internautes de 15 ans et plus est atteint, (The figure of 20 million Internet users of 15 years old and older has been reached) sondage Ipsos, le 27/12/2004.

Les attitudes des enseignants vis-à-vis des technologies de l'information et de la communication en 2001-2002. (Teachers' attitudes towards communication and information technologies in 2001-02), «Note d'évaluation», December 2003.

Les enfants du Net - II (The children of the Net), (2003) - Forum des droits sur l'Internet.

Les enfants du Net - I (The children of the Net), (2004) - Forum des droits sur l'Internet.

Les Français, les loisirs et les nouvelles technologies, vers une société d'Entertainment ? (French people, spare time and new technologies, towards an entertainment society ?), IPSOS, Juin 2004.

Les usages dans les points d'accès publics à l'Internet (Internet use in the multimedia public spaces) - janvier 2003.

«Les usages pédagogiques de l'Internet au collège» (The pedagogical uses of the Internet in the Collège (11-15)), CNDP, Division de l'animation et de l'intégration des ressources, avril 1999.

Téléchargement de musique en ligne : gratuit ou payant ? Que font les internautes ?, (Downloading music on line : free or paid?. What are Internet users doing ?), Médiamétrie, Communiqué de presse, Février 2005.

Téléphonie mobile : le marché de la 3G est-il mûr ? (Mobile phones : is the 3G market mature ?), TNS-SOFRES, Décembre 2004.

Une communication sexuée ? (A sexed communication ?) Réseaux n°120, 2003.

ANNIS J., Parlez-vous texto : guide des nouveaux langages du réseau, Le Cherche Midi, 2001 (Do you talk SMS : guide of the new langages of the network).

Baromètre CSA-Opinion 2003, «Les Français et l'utilisation des micro-ordinateurs», (French people and their computer use) Ministère de l'Economie, des Finances et de l'Industrie.

 

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