Analyse and synthesis of the existing data

National initiatives France

After a first phase mainly based on school equipment in computers and Internet access and in the development of technical abilities, the French Ministry of Education created a new certificate called B2i (Brevet Informatique et Internet), for students in primary and secondary schools. In 2006, this certificate will be extended to a third level : students at university, with a special one for future teachers. Apart from technical issues, the B2i level 1 and 2 emphasises Internet search and highlights the question of the efficiency and reliability of sources.

In parallel, and in cooperation with the French Forum of rights on the Internet and the family sector, the Ministry of Education seeks to promote good practices in terms of citizenship. Their main objectives are to fight against illegal downloading of music and video, to safeguard schools and homes from harmful content by means of filters and black lists, to develop (and negotiate in some cases) a usage agreement signed by each pupil, in each school.

The media education initiatives, set up mostly by Clemi in the Ministry of Education, aim at developing critical thinking skills and favour responsible and autonomous use of the media. They consist in training campaigns for teachers, development and diffusion of educational tools such as Educaunet, a project from the European Safer Internet action plan, and studies and observation of young people's use.

Resources - Research

Chiffres clés des technologies de l'information et de la communication à l'école en Europe. (Key figures for communication and information technologies at school in Europe). Eurydice, May 2004

Les attitudes des enseignants vis-à-vis des technologies de l'information et de la communication en 2001-2002. (Teachers' attitudes towards communication and information technologies in 2001-02), 'Note d'évaluation', December 2003.

Baromètre annuel réalisé pour France Télécom par Démoscopie : La perception d'Internet à l'école par les enseignants, les documentalistes et les chefs d'établissements. (Teachers, librarians and school directors' perceptions of the Internet at school).
1999 (article de Libération), 2000 (comm. presse), 2001

Emile European Project (2002) : Usages des technologies d'information et de communication (TIC) dans des établissements d'enseignement primaire et secondaire. (The use of communication and information technologies in primary and secondary schools).

Les usages pédagogiques de l'Internet au collège (edagogical uses of the Internet in the Collège (11-15), avril 1999, CNDP, Division de l'animation et de l'intégration des ressources.
The investigation was aimed at discovering the reality of Internet use in the Collège. (Inside : The questionnaires and interview guides)

Les technologies de l'information et de la communication (Information and communication technologies).
Evaluation des dispositifs académiques, bilans disciplinaires, accompagnement de la mise en œuvre des décisions ministérielles. Inspection générale de l'Education Nationale, juillet 1999.
Investigation of teaching practices using the Internet and local networks. Teachers in training are not taken into account in this investigation. It gives results concerning the Internet functions and roles of teachers and pupils and equipment in primary and secondary schools at that date.

L'école à l'heure d'Internet, les enjeux du multimédia dans l'éducation. (School in the Internet era, the multimedia stakes in education). Observatoire des technologies pour l'éducation en Europe, Serge Pouts-Lajus et Marielle Riché Magnier, 1998.
What happens to theories of learning (behaviourist and constructivist) with the arrival of new technologies.
The new communication tools could help to develop a model situated somewhere between the classical scheme of learning ant the model of self-learning (online conferences for example)


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